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(1) Posted by Milan Ćirović [Tuesday, Jan 30, 2007 16:02]


Here are three problems, mates in two moves (seconds). I am still new in this, so critics and suggestions how to make better chess problems are appreciated.


1. (= 6+3 )

2. (= 7+5 )

3. (= 5+5 )

And one question: how and where can I check position - is it already published?
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(2) Posted by Branislav Djurašević [Tuesday, Jan 30, 2007 16:20]; edited by Branislav Djurašević [07-01-30]

Dear friend,
all these three positions are not chess problems. They are combinations, mostly because there are no variations. Also, usually in chess problems check is not first move. If you are from Belgrade and like chess problems, please come in Chess Club Beograd, Kralja Milana 27/I floor every Thursday about 19h to meet other problemists.
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(3) Posted by Milan Ćirović [Tuesday, Jan 30, 2007 17:05]; edited by Milan Ćirović [07-01-30]

Thank you for quick reply. I knew I missed something, lol.

I am not from Belgrade, but I will write that address...

Thank you once again.

PS: Ok, not chess problems, how should I classify it? Just combinations?

Sorry, I found it:

....and again I missed "necessary to see several moves ahead"... :)
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(4) Posted by Branislav Djurašević [Friday, Feb 2, 2007 12:52]

Some explanation about chess problems from Encyclopedia Britannica 2003:

Chess composition

Chess compositions are created positions in which one side, usually White, moves first and is required to perform a task. The reader is called upon to find the task's solution. There are three basic forms of composition depending on the type of task.

In studies, White is asked to reach a desired result, either a clear winning or drawn position, in an indeterminate number of moves. In problems, White is asked to force checkmate in a specific number of moves. Black is required to put up the best defense in the solutions of both studies and problems. In the third category, heterodox problems and related retrograde analysis, the reader is asked to perform unusual tasks.

In each case, criteria such as originality, difficulty, beauty, and the absence of extraneous pieces distinguish good compositions from great and poor ones. Also, the existence of a second solution, or cook, sharply reduces the quality of a composition. Under these and other criteria, composers of studies and problems have competed in organized tournaments since the middle of the 19th century. The world chess federation, FIDE, awards the titles of International Master and International Grandmaster of Chess Composition based on having studies and problems published in the FIDE albums.


Composed studies are usually positions with a small number of pieces and may resemble an endgame from actual play. A position always is accompanied by a stipulation, either “White to play and win? or “White to play and draw.? There is no time limit on achieving a position that is objectively won or drawn.

Such a won position is not necessarily one leading to immediate checkmate but one with a prohibitively large advantage of material for White. A drawn position may be one in which Black lacks enough material to win or in which White has created an impenetrable fortress for his pieces or has obtained some kind of positional advantage, such as the ability to give perpetual check, that prevents Black from winning.Solutions are often elaborate. Some compositions beginning with a bare minimum of pieces involve a solution of more than 20 moves.

The first studies, called man—¨b(t and dating from Arabic and Persian manuscripts, were intended to instruct players on how to win endgames. Themes of instructional studies, such as the pursuit of more than one aim at a time, are often used in practical play to turn what otherwise would be a draw or loss into a win. Highly praised studies have been composed with a minimum of material, such as two kings and only two or three pawns. (See the composition.)

Studies have also been based on arresting or unusual ideas,including underpromotion, stalemate, or sacrifices. Vladimir Korolkov, a celebrated Russian composer, published a study entitled “Excelsior? in 1958 in which White wins only by making six consecutive captures by a pawn. The solution was illustrated by verses from Longfellow's poem “Excelsior.?

Positions with practical application were known as early as the 9th century and were particularly popular in the 19th century. Many leading players were also accomplished study composers, including the world champions Max Euwe, Mikhail Botvinnik, and Vasily Smyslov, as well as Paul Keres and Jan Timman.

The number of pieces in a problem is small but, with the exception of miniatures, there are generally more pieces thanin studies. In studies the solver usually tries to overcome the limits of material, but in problems what must be overcome is a limit of time, expressed in moves. The stipulation for these positions calls on White to mate in a set number of moves, usually two, three, or four, against the best possible Black play. (See the composition.)

Problems are also distinguished from studies by their general lack of resemblance to positions that typically arise ingames. Strategy and general principles play no role in problems. The first move, called the key, is rarely a check or other obvious move in modern problems, as it might be in a study. (See the composition.) In many cases the key is a waiting move—i.e., a nonchecking, noncapturing, and nonattacking move. Problem fans are often players with little or no contact with competitive chess. Only one player recognized as world champion, Adolf Anderssen, was also an accomplished problem composer.

The criteria for problems include the originality and subtlety ofan underlying idea. For example, in one of the American composer Sam Loyd's most famous problems (see the composition), the surprise is that White's b-pawn, which appears to be an innocuous bystander on the second rank, advances five times and delivers mate. Also, a fine problem not only avoids superfluous pieces but also tries to get the maximum play out of the ones used. (See the composition.)

By the middle of the 19th century, the modern style of problem emerged. Solutions beginning with lengthy stipulations, such as mate in seven moves, fell out of fashion. Instead, classic unifying ideas called themes—such as the Nowotny, Grimshaw, and Indian themes—were first used. (See the composition.) Composers tried to avoid duals, alternative moves by White after the first move, that fulfill the stipulation.

In the second half of the 19th century, English, German, and Bohemian schools of composing emerged.

Heterodox problems

The 20th century was marked by investigation of heterodox problems and greater elaboration of direct-mate problem themes. These problems, also called fairy chess, are distinguished from the orthodox problems considered so far by their unusual stipulations or by the use of nonstandard rules and pieces. Although most of the exploration of heterodox chess occurred in the 20th century, some forms are much older. The selfmate, for example, is believed to be at least 400 years old.

One such unusual stipulation is a helpmate: Black moves first and cooperates with White to get checkmated in a specified number of moves. Another is the selfmate, in whichWhite moves first and forces Black—who is not cooperating—to deliver mate in the specified number of moves. (See the composition.) In a retractor problem the player given the task begins by taking back a move and replacing it with another move, with the aim of achieving the stipulation, such as mating in three moves. In a maximummer Black must always make the geometrically longest move available.

In retrograde analysis problems the objective is to determine how the given position was reached. (See the composition.)

Other forms of heterodox problems use nonstandard pieces with nonstandard powers, such as the grasshopper, camel, zebra, and nightrider. Boards other than 8 × 8 are sometimes used....(etc.)

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(5) Posted by Dmitri Turevski [Saturday, Feb 3, 2007 09:17]

> ... one side, usually White, moves first and is required to perform a task.

This arises a question. Does anybody know of a direct or selfmate (not endgame, h# or retro) problem where it is thematically necessary for black to move first and fulfill the stipulation? I think there can be an example with pieces arranged to form letters or something (so swithching colors would ruin the idea). Or is it such a flaw that everybody is trying to escape?
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(6) Posted by Evgeni Bourd [Saturday, Feb 3, 2007 13:08]


The thing you talk about is accualy used .. to create a setplay .
a direct problem in N moves must start with white moving otherwise
what is the solver's intention to find?
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(7) Posted by Juraj Lörinc [Saturday, Feb 3, 2007 13:50]

Dmitri: Yes, there are such problems in existence. One specific kind are duplex problems where the stipulation is fulfilled by both White and Black starting.
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(8) Posted by Dmitri Turevski [Saturday, Feb 3, 2007 14:03]

Oh, thank you, how could i forget about duplex!

Evgeni: good point, but i always thought that from solver's point of view, set play is not a play that starts with black move, instead it's a play that starts with absolutely random white move, with other phases being the corrections.
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(9) Posted by Uri Avner [Saturday, Feb 3, 2007 21:23]; edited by Uri Avner [07-02-03]

It's simple: put any selfmate after White's first move. Waiting for more questions...
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(10) Posted by Dmitri Turevski [Saturday, Feb 3, 2007 23:19]

Sorry, I think i dont quite understand this.

What i was thinking about was the case when composer *can not* get rid of stipulation like "Black to move and mate White against any defense in N moves" by switching color of every piece and rotating the board by 180 degrees. Duplex problems are good examples.

My idea was dumber: if i have a problem (#2 Black mates White) where pieces are arranged in shape of the letter "M" and i want to dedicate it to great Comins Mansfield then i just cant rotate the board - having obvious letter "W" in such a problem would be inapropriate.

Am i making any sense?
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(11) Posted by Uri Avner [Sunday, Feb 4, 2007 00:06]

Your question would be more interesting if you had any concrete problem, not just an abstract and obscure situation. Have you composed any problem that you'd like to show?
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(12) Posted by Dmitri Turevski [Sunday, Feb 4, 2007 01:01]; edited by Dmitri Turevski [07-02-04]

My question was if it is logically possible and whether it violates any rules/conventions of the chess composition.
I don't have my own problem to show, though i'd be happy to.

However, i have found a great example:

Sam Loyd, American Chess Nuts 1868
(= 14+2 )


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(13) Posted by Uri Avner [Sunday, Feb 4, 2007 04:19]; edited by Uri Avner [07-02-04]

No solution! Maybe #5? Then 1.Bd3!
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(14) Posted by Dmitri Turevski [Sunday, Feb 4, 2007 08:19]

I'll translate the Maizelis' book "Chess (elementary manual)" about this problem.

When famous composer Loyd was giving the stipulation to this problem it was noisy around. This is what could be heard clearly: " ... begin (then his voice grew stronger) and mate in four moves".
The audience spent a long time vainly trying to mate the black king in four moves.
-- No, White cant mate in four here, -- they have finally decided.
-- But why White? -- Loyd was pretending to be surprised, but he was rather happy to trick his audience -- I clearly have said: Black begin and mate in four moves.

1. ef! 2. fg 3. gh 4. hg#

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(15) Posted by Dmitri Turevski [Sunday, Feb 4, 2007 10:32]

Okay, let me give it a try. This is my first helpmate, so please don't judge too harshly.

(= 4+6 )

White to play and to cooperate with Black to mate White in 2 moves

Try: 1. e4: g6 2. d4 Bg7 ("Pirc Defense" or "Modern") ... but 3. Kd5!
Solution: 1. e4: e6 2. d4 d6# (Old-fashion "French Defense")
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(16) Posted by Hauke Reddmann [Monday, Feb 5, 2007 11:21]

It *is* logically possible! I know a problem (look up "Retroanalysis")
where nearly everything is in the starting position of the game and
only N and R moved, and thus you can *prove* Black has the move.
Of course, this is the "joke" of the problem - White having the move
would only be meta-funny.

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